Pamela Lein

image of Pamela Lein

Professor

Departments

MIND Institute
Molecular Biosciences, School of Veterinary Medicine

Offices and Labs

2009 Vet Med 3B Davis, CA 95616
+1 530 752 1970

Degrees

1990 Ph.D. Pharmacology and Toxicology University of Buffalo
1983 M.S. Environmental Health East Tennessee State University
1981 B.S. Biology Cornell University

Research Contribution

Research in my lab has been used by regulatory agencies for risk assessments of the organophosphorus pesticide chlorpyrifos and of polychlorinated biphenyls, and these risk assessments have driven revisions of state and federal regulatory policies for these compounds.

Research Interests

Neurotoxicology

Research goals in the Lein laboratory include identifying novel therapeutic approaches for preventing brain damage following exposure to chemicals that cause seizures; understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which environmental factors interact with genetic factors to increase risk for neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorders, and neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease, and determining how pesticides alter communication between nerves and immune cells in the lung to cause airway hyperreactivity, a major symptom of asthma. This research leverages diverse model systems ranging from primary neuronal cell culture to zebrafish to rodent models, and multiple techniques ranging from cellular and molecular techniques to in vivo imaging to behavioral studies.

Awards

• 2015 Zoetis Award for Veterinary Research Excellence, UC Davis School of Veterinary Medicine

Department and Center Affiliations

Center for Children's Environmental Health
MIND Institute
UC Davis Environmental Health Sciences Center
UC Davis CounterACT Center of Excellence

ProfessionalSocieties

Society of Toxicology
Society for Neuroscience
International Neurotoxicology Association
The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics

CBS Grad Group Affiliations

Molecular, Cellular and Integrative Physiology
Neuroscience

Specialties / Focus

Molecular, Cellular and Integrative Physiology
  • Cellular Physiology
  • Molecular Physiology
  • Neurophysiology
  • Behavioral Physiology

Graduate Groups not Housed in CBS

Pharmacology and Toxicology (PTX)
Immunology

Courses

Neurotox MCIP 234 Neurotoxicology (Spring)

Publications

12/4/2017 8:03:34 PM
    1. Ellison CA, Abou El-Ella SS, Tawfik M, Lein PJ, Olson JR (2012) Allele and genotype frequencies of CYP2B6 and CYP2C19 polymorphisms in Egyptian agricultural workers. J Toxicol Environ Health, Part A75:232-241. PMC3500531

    2. Ghogha A, Bruun DA, Lein PJ (2012) BMP-induced dendritic growth in cultured sympathetic neurons. J Vis Exp Mar 21 (61) pii: 3546. doi: 10.3791/3546. PMC3460579

    3. Zolkowska D, Banks CN, Dhir A, Inceoglu B, Sanborn JR, McCoy MR, Bruun DA, Hammock BD, Lein PJ, Rogawski MA (2012) Characterization of seizures induced by acute and repeated exposure to tetramethylenedisulfotetramine. J Pharmacol Exp Therap 341(2):435-46. PMC3336809

    4. Bal-Price AK, Coecke S, Costa L, Crofton KM, Fritsche E, Goldberg A, Grandjean P, Lein PJ, Li A, Lucchini R, Mundy WR, Padilla S, Persico AM, Seiler AEM, Kreysa J (2012) Conference report: Advancing the science of Developmental Neurotoxicity (DNT) testing for better safety evaluation. ALTEX 29:202-215. PMID22892558

    5. Lein PJ (2012) Emerging concepts in neurotoxicology: Models, mechanisms and modifying factors. NeuroToxicol 33:516-517. PMID22694846

    6. Banks CN, Lein PJ (2012) A review of experimental evidence linking neurotoxic organo-phosphorus compounds and inflammation.NeuroToxicol 33: 575-84. PMC3358519

    7. Li Y*, Lein PJ*, Liu C, Bruun DA, Giulivi C, Ford G, Tewolde T, Ross-Inta C, Ford BD (2012) Neuregulin-1 is neuroprotective in a rat model of organophosphate-induced delayed neuronal injury.Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 262(2):194-204. * These authors contributed equally to this work. PMC3607352

    8. Wayman GA, Yang D, Bose DD, Lesiak A, Ledoux V, Bruun D, Pessah IN, Lein PJ (2012) PCB 95 promotes dendritic growth via ryanodine receptor-dependent mechanisms. Environ Health Perspect 120(7): 997-1002. PMC3404670

    9. Wayman GA, Bose DD, Yang D, Lesiak A, Bruun D, Impey S, Ledoux V, Pessah IN, Lein PJ (2012) PCB 95 modulates calcium-dependent signaling pathway responsible for activity-dependent dendritic growth. Environ Health Perspect 120(7):1003-9. PMC3404671

    10. Lein PJ, Bonner MR, Farahat FM, Olson JR, Rohlman DS, Fenske RA, Lattal M, Lasarev MR, Galvin K, Farahat TM and Anger WK (2012) Experimental strategy for translational studies of organophosphorus pesticide neurotoxicity based on real-world occupational exposures to chlorpyrifos. NeuroToxicol 33:660-668. PMC3332151

    11. Van Thriel C, Westerink R, Beste C, Bale A, Lein PJ, Leist M (2012) Translating neurobehavioral endpoints of developmental neurotoxicity tests into in vitro assays and readouts. NeuroToxicol 33:911-924. PMC3288589

    12. Kania-Korwel I, Barnhart CD, Stamou M, Truong KM, El-Komy MHME, Lein PJ, Veng-Pedersen P, Lehmler H-J (2012) 2,2´,3,5´,6-Pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 95) and its hydroxylated metabolites are enantiomerically enriched in female mice. Environ Sci Tech 46(20): 11393-401. PMC3475189

    13. Cao Z, Hammock BD, McCoy M, Rogawski MA, Lein PJ, Pessah IN (2012) Tetramethylene-disulfotetramine alters Ca2+ dynamics in cultured hippocampal neurons: Mitigation by NMDA blockade and GABAA receptor positive modulation. Toxicol Sci 130(2):362-72. PMC3529644

    14. Ellison CA, Crane AL, Bonner MR, Knaak JB, Browne RW, Lein PJ, Olson JR (2012) PON-1 status does not influence cholinesterase activity in Egyptian agricultural workers exposed to chlorpyrifos. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 265(3): 308-315. PMC3513664

    15. Liu C, Li Y, Lein PJ, Ford BD (2012) Spatiotemporal patterns of GFAP upregulation in rat brain following acute intoxication with diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP). Curr Neurobiol 3(2): 90-97. PMC3772776

    16. Cranmer JM, Lein PJ, Pessah IN (2012) Environmentally triggered neurodevelopmental disorders:Focus on endocrine disruiption and sex differences in autism, ADHD and schizophrenia: Overview and theme of the 27th International Neurotoxicology Conference. NeuroToxicol 33(6): 1397-1401.

    17. Grodzki ACG, Giulivi C, Lein PJ (2013) Oxygen tension modulates differentiation and primary macrophage functions in the human monocytic THP-1 cell line. PLoS ONE 8(1): e54926. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0054926. PMC3552948

    18. Stamou M, Streifel KM, Goines PE and Lein PJ (2013) Neuronal connectivity as a convergent target of gene-environment interactions that confer risk for Autism Spectrum Disorders.Neurotoxicol Teratol 36: 3-16. PMC3610799

    19. Dadson OA, Ellison CA, Singleton ST, Chi L-H, McGarrigle B, Lein PJ Farahat FM, Farahat T, Olson J (2013) Metabolism of profenofos to 4-bromo-2-chlorophenol, a specific and sensitive exposure. Toxicology 306C: 35-39. PMC4751995

    20. Proskocil BJ, Bruun DA, Jacoby DB, van Rooijen N, Lein PJ, Fryer AD (2013) Macrophage TNFα mediates parathion-induced airway hyperreactivity in guinea pigs. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 304 (8):L519-29. PMC3625991

    21. Wu X, Kania-Korwel I, Chen H, Stamou M, Dammanahalli KJ, Duffel M, Lein PJ, Lehmler H-J (2013) Metabolism of 2,2',3,3',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 136) atropisomers in tissue slices from phenobarbital or dexamethasone-induced rats is sex-dependent. Xenobiotica 43(11):933-47. PMC3878182

    22. Stamou M, Wu X, Kania-Korwel I, Lehmler H-J, Lein PJ (2014) Cytochrome P450 mRNA expression in the rodent brain: species-, sex- and region-dependent differences. Drug Metab Dispos 42(2):239-44. PMC3912540

    23. Lesiak A, Zhu M, Chen H, Appleyard SM, Impey S, Lein PJ*, Wayman GA (2014) The environmental neurotoxicant PCB 95 promotes synaptogenesis via ryanodine receptor-dependent miR132 upregulation. J Neurosci 34(3): 717-25. *Corresponding author.  This article was selected as the editor’s highlight for this issue. PMC3891953

    24. Singleton ST, Lein PJ, Farahat FM, Farahat T, Bonner MR, Knaak JB, Olson JR (2014) Characterization of α-cypermethrin exposure in Egyptian agricultural workers.Int J Hyg Environ Health 217(4-5):538-45. PMC3972299

    25. Yang D, Kania-Korwel I, Ghogha A, Chen H, Stamou M, Bose DD, Pessah IN, Lehmler HJ, Lein PJ (2014) PCB136 atropselectively alters morphometric and functional parameters of neuronal connectivity in cultured rat hippocampal neurons via ryanodine receptor-dependent mechanisms. Toxicol Sci 138(2):379-392. This article was selected as the editor’s highlight for this issue. PMC4007107

    26. Moore CE, Lein PJ, Puschner B (2014) Microcystins alter chemotactic behavior in Caenorhabditis elegans by selectively targeting the AWA sensory neuron. Toxins 6(6):1813-1836. PMC4073131

    27. Vito ST, Austin AT, Banks CN, Iceoglu B, Bruun DA, Zolkowska D, Tancredi DJ, Rogawski MA, Hammock BD, Lein PJ (2014) Post-exposure administration of diazepam combined with soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibition stops seizures and modulates neuroinflammation in a murine model of acute TETS intoxication. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 281:185-194. PMC4258121

    28. Haudenschild DR, Eldridge A, Lein PJ, Chromy BA (2014) High abundant protein removal from rodent blood for biomarker discovery. Biochem Biophys Res Comm 455(1-2): 84-89. PMC4309281

    29. Levoe SN, Flannery BM, Brignolo L, Imai D, Bruun DA, Tancredi DJ, Lein PJ (2014) Factors influencing adverse skin responses in rats receiving repeated subcutaneous injections and their impact on neurobehavior. Curr Neurobiol 5(1&2): 1-10. PMC4334164

    30. Flannery BM, Silverman JL, Bruun DA, Puhger KR, Crawley JN, Lein PJ (2015) Behavioral assessment of NIH Swiss mice acutely intoxicated with tetramethylenedisulfotetramine. Neurotoxicol Teratol 47:36-45. PMC4291292

    31. Wu X, Barnhart CD, Lein PJ, Lehmler HJ (2015) Hepatic metabolism affects the atropselective disposition of 2,2¢,3,3¢6,6¢-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 136) in mice.  Env Sci Tech 48(1): 616-25. PMC4291784

    32. Grodzki, ACG, Poola B, Pasupuleti N, Nantz MH, Lein PJ, Gorin FA (2015) The novel carboline derivative, 6-chloro-8-(glycinil) amino-β-carboline, inhibits nitric oxide formation independent of effects on TNFα and Il-1β expression in macrophages. J Pharmacol Exp Therap 352(3):438-47. PMC4352593

    33. Bal-Price A, Crofton KM, Sachana M, Shafer T, Behl M, Forsby A, Hargreaves A, Landesmann B, Lein PJ, Louisse J, Monnet-Tschudi F, Paini A, Rolaki A, Schrattenholz A, Suñol C, Van Thriel C, Whelan M, Fritsche E (2015) Putative adverse outcome pathways relevant to neurotoxicity.Crit Rev Toxicol 45(1):83-91. PMC5072123

    34. Singleton ST, Lein PJ, Dadson OA, McGarrigle BP, Farahat FM, Farahat T, Bonner MR, Fenske RA, Galvin K, Laserev MR, Anger WK, Rohlman DS, Olson JR (2015) Longitudinal assessment of occupational exposures to the organophosphorous insecticides chlorpyrifos and profenofos in Egyptian cotton field workers. Intl J Hyg Environ Health 218(2):203-11. PMC4323691

    35. Cao Z, Zou X, Cui Y, Hulsizer S, Lein PJ, Wulff H, Pessah IN (2015) Rapid throughput analysis demonstrates that chemicals with distinct seizurogenic mechanisms differentially alter Ca2+ dynamics in networks formed by hippocampal neurons in culture. Molec Pharmacol 87(4):595-605. PMC4366799

    36. Harrill JA*, Chen H*, Streifel K, Yang D, Mundy WR, Lein PJ (2015) Ontogeny of biochemical, morphological and functional parameters of synaptogenesis in primary cultures of rat hippocampal and cortical cells. Molec Brain 8(1):10. *These authors contributed equally to this work. http://www.molecularbrain.com/content/8/1/10 PMC4339650

    37. Barnhart CD, Yang D, Lein PJ (2015) Using the Morris water maze to assess spatial learning and memory in weanling mice. PLoS ONE 10(4):e0124521. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0124521 PMC4401674

    38. Li Y*, Lein PJ*, Ford GD, Liu C, Stovall K, White TE, Bruun DA, Tewolde T, Gates AS, Distel TJ, Surles-Zeigler MC, Ford BD (2015) Neuregulin-1 inhibits neuroinflammatory responses in a rat model of organophosphate nerve agent-induced delayed neuronal injury. J Neuroinflamm 12 (1):64. DOI: 10.1186/s12974-015-0283-y. *These authors contributed equally to this work. PMC4391606

    39. Chapman CAR, Chen H, Stamou M, Biener J, Biener MM, Lein PJ, Seker E (2015) Nanoporous gold as a neural interface coating: effects of topography, surface chemistry and feature size. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 7(13): 7093-7100. PMC4517587

    40. Bruun DA, Cao Z, Inceoglu B, Vito ST, Austin AT, Hulsizer S, Hammock BD, Tancredi DJ, Rogawski MA, Pessah IN, Lein PJ (2015) Combined treatment with diazepam and allopregnanolone reverses TETS-induced calcium dysregulation in cultured neurons and protects TETS-intoxicatedmice against lethal seizures. Neuropharmacol 95:332-342. PMC4466064

    41. Chandrasekaran V, Lea C, Sosa JC, Higgins D, Lein PJ (2015) Reactive oxygen species are involved in BMP-induced dendritic growth in cultured rat sympathetic neurons. Molec Cell Neurosci 67:116-125. PMC4550485

    42. Kania-Korwel I, Barnhart CD, Lein PJ, Lehmler HJ (2015) Effect of pregnancy on the disposition of 2,2¢,3,5¢,6-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 95) atropisomers and their hydroxylated metabolites in female mice. Crit Res Toxicol 28(9):1774-83. PMC4579038

    43. Bui-Nguyen TM, Baer CE, Lewis JA, Yang D, Lein PJ, Jackson DA (2015) Dichlorvos exposure results in large scale disruption of energy metabolism in the liver of the zebrafish, Danio rerio. BMC Genomics 16(1):853. doi: 10.1186/s12864. PMC4619386

    44. Stamou M*, Uwimana E*, Flannery BM, Kania-Korwel I, Lehmler H-J, Lein PJ (2015) Subacute nicotine co-exposure has no effect on 2,2′,3,5′,6-pentachlorobiphenyl disposition but alters hepatic cytochrome P450 expression in the male rat.Toxicol 338:59-68. *These authors contributed equally to this work. PMC4658283

    45. Proskocil BJ, Bruun DA, Garg JA, Villagomez CC, Jacoby DB, Lein PJ, Fryer AD (2015) Sensitization can influence the mechanisms of organophosphorus pesticide-induced airway hyperreactivity.Am J Resp Cell Molec Biol 53(5):738-47. PMC4742952

    46. Keil KP, Lein PJ (2016) DNA methylation: a mechanism linking environmental chemical exposures to risk of autism spectrum disorders? Environ Epigenetics 2 (1): dvv012. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eep/dvv012. PMC4856164

    47. Lee YS, Lewis JA, Ippolito DL, Hussainzada N, Lein PJ, Jackson DA, Stallings JD (2016) Repeated exposure to neurotoxic levels of chlorpyrifos alters hippocampal expression of neurotrophins and neuropeptides. Toxicol 340:53-62. PMC4777610

    48. Courter LA*, Shaffo FC*, Ghogha A, Parrish DJ, Lorentz CU, Habecker BA, Lein PJ (2016) BMP7-induced dendritic growth in sympathetic neurons requires p75NTR signaling. Dev Neurobiol 76(9):1003-13. *These authors contributed equally to this work. PMC4905816

    49. Saldarriaga W, Lein P, Teshima LYG, Izasa C, Rosa L, Polyak A, Hagerman R, Girirajan S, Silva M, Tassone F (2016) Phenobarbital use and neurological problems in FMR1 premutation carriers.  NeuroToxicol 53:141-147. PMC4808401

    50. Singh L, Pressly B, Mengeling BJ, Fettinger JC, Furlow JD, Lein PJ, Wulff H, Singh V (2016) Chasing the elusive benzofuran impurity of the THR antagonist NH-3: Synthesis, isotope labeling and biological activity. J Org Chem 81(5):1870-6. PMID26849160.

    51. Pessah IN, Rogawski MA, Tancredi DJ, Wulff H, Zolkowska D, Bruun DA, Hammock BD, Lein PJ (2016) Models to identify treatments for the acute and persistent effects of seizure-inducing chemical threat agents. Ann NY Acad Sci 1378(1):124-136. PMC5063690

    52. Flannery BM, Bruun DA, Rowland DJ, Banks CN, Austin AT, Kukis DL, Li Y, Ford BD, Tancredi DJ, Silverman JL, Cherry SR, Lein PJ (2016) Persistent neural injury and cognitive impairment in a rat model of acute DFP intoxication. J Neuroinflam 13(1):267. DOI 10.1186/s12974-016-0744-y. PMC5062885

    53. Chapman CAR, Chen H, Stamou M, Lein PJ, Seker R (2016) Mechanisms of reduced astrocyte surface coverage in cortical neuron-glia co-cultures on nanoporous gold surfaces. Cell Mol Bioeng  9(3):433-442. PMC5079442

    54. Aschner M, Ceccatelli S, Daneshian M, Fritsche E, Hasiwa N, Hartung T, Hogberg H, Leist M, Li A, Mundy WR, Padilla S, Piersma AH, Bal-Price A, Seiler A, Westerink R, Zimmer B and Lein P (2017) Selection of reference compounds for characterization and development of alternative methods for developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) testing. ALTEX. 34(1): 49-74. PMC5250586

    55. Wilson MD, Sethi S, Lein PJ, Keil KP (2017) Valid Statistical Approaches for Analyzing Sholl Data: Mixed Effects versus Simple Linear Models. J Neurosci Meth 279:33-43. PMC5346342

    56. Voorhees J, Rohlman D, Lein PJ, Pieper AA (2017) Models and putative mechanisms of neurotoxicity associated with occupational organophosphate exposures. Front Neurosci 10:590. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2016.00590 PMC5241311

    57. Van Thriel C, Levin E, Lein P, Costa LG, Westerink RH (2017) Neural mechanisms across the lifespan: The 15th biennial meeting of the International Neurotoxicology Association and 39th annual meeting of the Neurobehavioral Teratology Society. NeuroToxicol 59:131-132. PMID28347437

    58. Bal-Price A, Lein PJ, Keil KP, Sethi S, Shafer T, Barenys M, Fritsche E, Sachana M, Meek ME (2017) Developing and applying the adverse outcome pathway concept for understanding and predicting neurotoxicity. NeuroToxicol 59:240-255. PMC5114159

    59. Dunaway K, Goorha S, Matelski L, Urraca N, Lein PJ, Korf I, Reiter LT, Lasalle JM (2017) Dental pulp stem cells model early life and imprinted DNA methylation patterns. Stem Cells 35(4):981-988. PMC5367950

    60. Dach K, Bendt F, Huebenthal U, Giersiefer S, Lein PJ, Heuer H, Fritsche E (2017) BDE-99 impairs differentiation of human and mouse NPCs into the oligodendroglial lineage by species-specific modes of action. Sci Rep 7:44861. doi: 10.1038/srep44861. PMC5357893

    61. Chapman CAR, Chen H, Zhu X, Yankik AA, Lein PJ, Seker E (2017) Nanostructure introduces artifacts in quantitative immunofluorescence by influencing fluorophore intensity. Sci Rep 7(1):427. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-00447-7. PMC5428417

    62. Chen H, Streifel KM, Singh V, Yang D, Mangini L, Wulff H, Lein PJ (2017) BDE-47 and BDE-49 inhibit axonal growth in primary rat hippocampal neuron-glia co-cultures via ryanodine receptor-dependent mechanisms. Toxicol Sci 156(2):375-386. An image from this article was featured on the cover of this issue.

    63. Chen H, Judkins J, Thomas C, Wu M, Khoury L, Benjamin CG, Pacione D, Golfinos JG, Kumthekar P, Ghamsari F, Chen L, Lein P, Chetkovich DM, Snuderl M, Horbinski C (2017) Mutant IDH1 and seizures in patients with glioma. Neurol 88(19): 1805-1813. PMC5419985

    64. Chapman CAR, Wang L, Chen H, Garrison J, Lein PJ, Seker E (2017) Nanoporous gold biointerfaces: Modifying nanostructure to control neural cell coverage and enhance electrophysiological recording performance. Adv Funct Mater 27(3): 1604631.  DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201604631 PMC5471629

    65. Siso S*, Hobson BA*, Harvey DJ, Bruun DA, Rowland DJ, Garbow JR, Lein PJ (2017) Spatiotemporal progression and remission of lesions in the rat brain following acute intoxication with diisopropylfluorophosphate. Toxicol Sci 157(2):330-341. *Co-first authors. This article was selected as the editor’s highlight for this issue.

    66. Hobson BA, Siso S, Rowland DJ, Harvey DJ, Bruun DA, Garbow JR, Lein PJ (2017) Longitudinal monitoring by magnetic resonance imaging reveals progressive brain injury in rats acutely intoxicated with diisopropylfluorophosphate. Toxicol Sci 157(2):342-353. PMC5458789 An image from this article was featured on the cover of this issue.

    67. Kania-Korwel I, Lukasiewicz T, Barnhart CD, Stamou M, Chung H, Kelly KM, Bandiera S, Lein PJ, Lehmler HJ (2017) Congener-specific disposition of chiral polychlorinated biphenyls in lactating mice and their offspring: Implications for PCB developmental neurotoxicity. Toxicol Sci 158(1):101-115. This article was selected as the editor’s highlight for this issue.

    68. Mengeling BJ, Wei Y, Dobrawa LN, Streekstra M, Louisse J, Singh V, Singh L, Lein PJ, Wulff H, Murk AJ, Furlow JD (2017) A multi-tiered, in vivo, quantitative assay suite for environmental disruptors of thyroid hormone signaling. Aquat Toxicol 190:1-10. PMC5558850

    69. Sethi S, Keil KP, Chen H, Hayakawa K, Li X, Lin Y, Lehmler HJ, Puschner B, Lein PJ (2017) Detection of 3,3'-dichlorobiphenyl in human maternal plasma and its effects on axonal and dendritic growth in primary rat neurons. Toxicol Sci 158(2): 401-411.

    70. Keil KP, Sethi S, Wilson MD, Chen H, Lein PJ (2017) In vivo and in vitro sex differences in the dendritic morphology of developing murine hippocampal and cortical neurons. Sci Rep 7(1):8486. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-08459-z. PMC5559594

    71. Frank DJ, Miller GW, Connon RE, Geist J, Lein PJ (2017) Transcriptomic profiling of mTOR and ryanodine receptor signaling molecules in the developing zebrafish in the absence and presence of PCB 95. PeerJ (in press).

    72. Hobson BA, Rowland DR., Supasai S, Harvey DJ, Lein PJ, Garbow JR (2017) A magnetic resonance imaging study of early brain injury in a rat model of acute DFP intoxication. NeuroToxicol (in press).